2004– Professor of the Archaeology of the Roman Empire, University of Oxford.
2000-2004 University Lecturer in Roman Archaeology, University of Oxford.
1996-2000 Fellow by Examination in Classical Archaeology at Magdalen College, Oxford.
1999-2000 Rome Scholar at The British School at Rome.
1999 Junior University Lecturer in Roman Archaeology, University of Oxford (Hilary and Trinity Terms).
1993-1997 Doctoral research at Corpus Christi College and Magdalen College, Oxford.
Ancient technology; Roman archaeology, especially the Roman economy, urbanism and settlement.
Roman archaeology; Roman economy; ancient technology; ancient water supply.
On the Roman-Byzantine adoption of the stirrup once more: a new find from seventh‐century Aphrodisias in Caria
APHRODISIAS, STIIRRUPS, ARCHAEOLOGY
Mediterranean urbanisation in North Africa: Greek, Punic and Roman models
Urbanisation and State Formation in the Ancient Sahara and Beyond
This chapter seeks to identify the distinctive characteristics of Greek, Punic and Roman urbanism in North Africa, and to explore similarities and differences between them. It presents an overview of urban morphology, infrastructure (streets, water supply), architectural characteristics (materials and aesthetics), and the common range of public buildings and types of domestic housing found in the various cultures; and explores the extent to which we can reconstruct the use of public space and the character of urban life from inscriptions and the evidence of the statue habit in Roman towns. Questions of size and population, and economic roles, will also be considered. The main aim is to provide a succinct summary of fundamental information to enable comparison and contrast with other papers in the collection which look at indigenous state formation and urbanism in the Maghreb and the Sahara, rather than to present radically new research.
Roman water-power: chronological trends and geographical spread
Capital, Investment, and Innovation in the Roman World
WATER-MILLS WATER-MILLS - ANCIENT WATER-MILLS - ROMAN WATER-POWER WATER-POWERED ORE STAMPS WATER-POWERED SAW MILLS ORE STAMPS ORE CRUSHING TECHNOLOGY - ANCIENT WORLD TECHNOLOGY - ROMAN ROMAN ECONOMY CAPITAL
Palaeogeographical and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Medjerda delta (Tunisia) during the Holocene
Quaternary Studies Review
The progradation of the Medjerda delta has been the subject of many studies since the 19th c. The scale and the rapidity of this phenomenon have early interested researchers in various fields, such as geomorphology, geology, palaeogeography, history, archaeology, or geoarchaeology. This paper aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironments and the progradation of the northern compartment of the Medjerda delta since the mid-Holocene, which reached around 10 km in 3 millennia. Based on two coring transects, the chrono-stratigraphical study of 7 cores allows us to identify 8 major phases: (1) from the 6th millennium to around 2600 BC, the sea covered the “northern compartment” of the delta and the “corridor” formed by the Utica and Kalaat El Andalous promontories; (2) between 2600 and the 1st c. AD, the wadi progressively filled the corridor between the two promontories; (3) between the 1st c. AD and the 4th c. AD, the marine bay narrowed gradually and isolated a sea arm on the eastern border of the northern compartment of the Medjerda delta; (4) between the 4th and the 7th c. AD, the sedimentation rates exploded, reflecting increased dynamism of of the wadi, which shifted into the northern compartment resulting in the creation of a lagoon; (5) from the 7th to 10th c. AD, a peat bog developed along the northern façade of the headland, while the coastal lagoon progressively closed to the sea (6th - 8th c. AD); (6) between the 10th and the 15th c., the mouth of the wadi progressed to the east; (7) finally, between the 15th and the 18th centuries, the sediments carried by the Medjerda progressively sealed the bay, leaving the tip of the Utica promontory 10 km inland (18th c. AD to the present) (8).
UTICA RIVERS NORTH AFRICA HOLOCENE DELTA SEDIMENTOLOGY CORING PALAEOENVIRONMENT Holocene Delta progradation Palaeogeography Geoarchaeology Tunisia Western Mediterranean Biological indicators
Pervasive Arctic lead pollution suggests substantial growth in medieval silver production modulated by plague, climate and conflict
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Lead pollution in Arctic ice reflects large-scale historical changes in mid-latitude industrial activities such as ancient lead/silver production and recent fossil fuel burning. Here we used measurements in a broad array of thirteen accurately-dated ice cores from Greenland and Severnaya Zemlya to document spatial and temporal changes in Arctic lead pollution from 200 BCE to 2010 CE, with interpretation focused on 500 to 2010 CE. Detailed atmospheric transport modeling indicates that Arctic lead pollution was primarily from European emissions prior to the 19th-C. Industrial Revolution. Temporal variability was surprisingly similar across the large swath of the Arctic represented by the array, with 250- to 300-fold increases in lead pollution observed from the early Middle Ages to the 1970s industrial peak. Superimposed on these largely population-driven changes were pronounced, multi-annual to multi-decadal variations, marked by increases coincident with exploitation of new mining regions, improved technologies, and periods of economic prosperity; and decreases coincident with famines, climate disruptions, famines, major wars, and plagues. Our results suggest substantial overall and per capita growth in lead/silver mining and smelting emissions — and so silver production — during the Early Middle Ages, with lower or negative per capita growth during the High and Late Middle Ages and into the Earlypre-industrial MModern Period, particularly in northern Europe. Near the end of the 2nd Pandemic, lead pollution growth accelerated sharply and continued through the 2nd Industrial Revolution. Pollution abatement policies in the mid-latitudes have reduced Arctic lead pollution by >80% since the 1970s, but recent levels remain ~60-fold higher than at the start of the Middle Ages.
LEAD, LEAD POLLUTION, MINING, MEDIEVAL, ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION, ATMOSPHERIC PB, ARCTIC, ICE CORES, GREENLAND, AKADEMII NAUK, HARZ MOUNTAINS, ERZGEBIRGE MOUNTAINS, PLAGUE, ECONOMIC HISTORY